Digitizing sponsorThis project is made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services as administered by the. Marriage and Morals is a compelling cross-cultural examination of individual, familial and societal attitudes towards sex and marriage. By exploring the codes by. Marriage and morals by Bertrand Russell; 20 editions; First published in DAISY for print-disabled Download ebook for print-disabled (DAISY).
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Russell's approach to sex and love is based on the realities of need and desire, rather than on ancient tribal and religious taboos. Marriage and Morals is a clear . Marriage and morals. [Bertrand Russell] -- Controversial and remarkably forward thinking, this book explores the changing role of marriage and codes of sexual. Read "Marriage and Morals" by Bertrand Russell available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Marriage and Morals is a.
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Would you also like to submit a review for this item? The problem is that it is inevitable to say that there is a huge conflict between law and morality and this conflict shows itself on some specific examples. Its importance is over than all other regulators like morality. However the conflict between them proves that moral principles are still stronger than legal principles for some cases. Although today one can argue that as long as law permits certain social practices such as same-sex marriage, abortion and legislation of prostitution should not be considered as legally wrong, they are moral problems of modern world, which proves that moral principles are still stronger than legal principles.
The aim of law is that people should be governed by accepted rules which are general and abstract known and certain and applied equally to all individuals. It is obvious that there is a close relation between law and morality because they both seek our piece of mind and justice to achieve the aim of regulation of human life. Raz, Since the beginning of civilization, human communities have the sense of morality in every single century.
On the other hand the idea of government and law came to light more lately than morality. There have been people lawless or without governments but there is no community which have not met with morality.
However in one way we can think about that law is invented to develop moral rules. Ergin, To materialize the relationship between law and morality, i would like to give an example. To keep your own promise is a rule of morality but also it is essential principle of international law, code of obligations and more. All these topics are like buildings which constructed by moral rules.
Ergin, These 2 main topics, law and morality, are in a close relationship. However at the same time they are in a conflict. In decent years there are some examples to show the conflict and to understand that moral principles are still stronger than legal principles such as same-sex marriages, abortion and legislation of prostitution. I will examine these 3 topics in the following paragraphs. He is all for enjoyment, his dress always very fine, rich in stones and pearls, to say nothing of broidery.
As for the things of the mind and spirit, these are not so much to his taste. He had almost split Spain in two in the attempt to push his claim. He was a Fleming, brought up in the Low Countries, who spoke Spanish badly, and knew nothing at all of the prides and jealousies to which he was heir. He needed money, and summoned the Cortes, as was constitutional, to get it; but he regarded his own convenience by appointing as the place of meeting Galicia, whence, the money secured, he could depart at once by sea.
Galicia was an inaccessible rustic province, offensive to Castilians. There was rebellion in Valladolid; Madrid, Toledo, Cordoba protested. It was evident that the rejected candidate--'We both court the same mistress,' was Francis' phrase, 'and each should urge his suit with all the address of which he is master'--would not long leave his successful rival in peace.
The old military arguments presented themselves with their usual impressiveness; as that when an attack is certain it is good tactics to forestall it; that a man who has much will certainly want more; and that passivity under insult is dishonouring to a king and the nation he rules.
Francis, besides, had something of a taste for war, and had been brilliantly successful at Marignano, when he beat Sforza and won Milan for France. His challenge was not so rash as it sounded. Charles was nominally lord of Austria, Spain, the Low Countries, the Sicilics, and the Americas, with all the wealth at his back that such lordship implied.
But Francis had Switzerland to draw on for troops, a privilege for which he had paid , crowns annually, awaiting just such a moment as this. Charles' possessions were scattered and troublesome; France was compact and loyal: 'the French,' said Carvalli, 'seem to have abandoned their wills wholly to the King.
There had been uncomfortable rumours; a contract of marriage, relationship in petto, was not much to set against the Emperor's blood tie with the English throne. Urgent letters of regard and esteem suggested the immediate marriage of the two babies, and appointed a place where the two Kings might confer in amity on French soil.
Charles' ministers too held conclaves, not liking the alliance, but could find no way to prevent it except by marrying off their own master. True, Charles was betrothed to the Princess Charlotte of France, aged three, and the King of Portugal had a grown daughter for disposal with 80, crowns who seemed very willing to have him. But there was not much money with the Princess Charlotte, and as for Portugal, it was a quarter from which at the moment no danger threatened.
The statesmen, with their quaint belief, surviving betrayals untold, that family ties protect a country in war, waved away these various contracts, and combined the available pieces to make another pattern; England and the Empire against France.
For England, Spain was not yet the enemy. It was a country, to English minds, too far away to be dangerous, even with the Low Countries tacked on to it by the accident of a crown. France, on the other hand, was resented as an upstart; Paris had had an English governor only a century before. The English view was that Frenchmen were rebels, insufficiently persuaded of the benefits that flowed inevitably from English rule, and that their King, instead of treating on something more than equal terms with a Tudor, ought to be cap in hand to him.
In England too, therefore, there were conclaves, and plans centring upon the figure of the small yellow-haired Princess, 'right merry, daily exercising herself in virtuous pastimes and occupations,' and still the Dauphin's bride, wearing his ring. The Venetian ambassador, Giustiniani, met Mary one day being carried in her nurse's arms, her father walking by her. He knelt, then reached up to kiss her hand.
Spies presented their reports, letters went to and fro carrying rumours; when these became too detailed and convincing Henry sent civil disclaimers to Francis, protesting that their bargain still held; to which Francis responded, saying that for his own part he would rather have the Princess Mary for his son, 'though the King's grace had ten children, than the King of Portingale's daughter, with all the spices her father hath.
Some were puppets and remained so. Some that were older knew their own minds, and made negotiation difficult by a frank statement of their intentions. The Portuguese Princess Isabella, for example, Isabella the small and fair, so short lived and dearly loved, was determined to be Empress.
She took for her motto Aut Caesar, aut nihil, and announced it to Europe, while her father increased his offer to a million crowns in gold. This was tempting, and Charles hesitated, necessary though it was for him to break the Francis-Henry alliance.
Marriage alone would settle matters with Henry, from whom already he had borrowed 30, crowns, a fact which Wolsey, when the dealing between them came down to figures, did not allow him to forget.
Charles, bargaining, asked a million crowns with the English princess. Wolsey coolly offered 80,, from which the original debt was to be deducted. Charles, a good deal taken aback at this view of his value through English eyes, played for time, while Francis, not merely suspicious, but perfectly well aware of all that was going on and determined to put a stop to it, pressed for a ratification of the marriage treaty with his son.
A date was fixed, reluctantly, by the English plotters; the end of the month of May was appointed, and orders went out to all the tailors, armourers, and upholsterers of two countries. It was too much for Charles' resolution. Five days before the meeting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold he appeared in England; 'specially to see the Queen of England, his aunt,' says Hall's Chronicle, 'was the intent of the Emperor.
Mary did not go with her parents to France, but stayed quietly with her governess, Lady Bryan, at Richmond, where some French gentlemen came to see her and compliment her from the Dauphin.
The council wrote to Henry, busy with festivities but not to the neglect of all domesticity, that the Princess 'welcomed the French gentlemen with most goodly countenance, proper communication, and pleasant pastime in playing on the virginals; and they greatly marvelled and rejoiced at the same, her young and tender age considered. Their entertainment cost thirty-five shillings and threepence, and consisted of cherries, old apples this was in June , wafers and strawberries, with four gallons of hippocras.
They, or similar French gentlemen, were continually during this year keeping an eye on the Princess, while equivalent English gentlemen crossed the Channel to condole with the little Dauphin on an accident, or to take him precious stones and toys.
The outward show of friendship and alliance was never allowed to lapse. The Emperor was making up his mind. His dash to England in June had been an unusually impulsive action, and the probability is that he had at that time committed himself. Certainly about the middle of next year a commission was appointed to consider all arrangements for his marriage with Mary, which included, since he and she were first cousins, a dispensation to be procured from the Pope.
The commission took no great time over their business.
The Pope was complaisant, the money was ready; in addition to the marriage matter, and in the same treaty, Henry and Charles bound themselves to attack Francis by a certain date, he being meanwhile a prospective father-in-law of the one and standing in the same relation to the other's daughter.
Two years after his first visit Charles landed at Dover. There was no doubt about his popularity with the English.
They had some notion of him as the King of the world, and his choice of an English princess for consort confirmed them in their new and excellent national conceit of themselves. There was enthusiasm which may be compared, not happily, with the kind of welcome his son found in , when 'demonstrations of joy were obliged upon the people,' says the French ambassador, 'on pain of death'; and Philip's envoy, Count Egmont, was brought down Cheapside, 'where the people nothing rejoicing held down their heads sorrowfully.
He asked her blessing on his knees, which must have made the watching crowds proud of their King's wife, and 'had great joy to see his young cousin german the Lady Mary. One provided that the existing differences between the Emperor and the King of France should be settled as soon as might be; another, for the invasion of France by a joint expedition to recover English ground there lost; those cities quite honestly and legally downloadd by Francis in the year with money won in the Italian campaign.
Another clause insisted that the Princess at twelve years old should be sent to Spain to finish her education there. This treaty, though officially no word was breathed of its existence, was no secret so far as Francis was concerned.
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He was aware of it; he was alarmed by it. He was spoiling to attack the Emperor over the border in the vulnerable Low Countries, but held back for fear lest Henry should strike, very well aware how the loss of those once English towns Tournai, St. Amand, Mortagne--rankled in English memories. He perceived that it was not the moment for any kind of action.
He held his hand and his tongue, and let time, and the Emperor's difficulties, unravel the tangle for him.
It seems fairly evident that Henry, though he coveted this splendid marriage for his daughter, had no real hope of it. While the treaty still held, and Charles wrote from Spain of 'my beloved bride, future imperatrix, the Princess,' a rumour was favoured among the ambassadors that some intrigue was going on with the King of Scots, who was to have a pension and a claim upon the English Crown if he would marry Mary.
But while the chance of the more brilliant match still held, Henry was neglecting no means to bring it about. Ambassadors extraordinary went to Spain, one of them that same Bishop of London, Tunstall, who had so exhorted the Princess and her parents concerning the sanctity of marriage contracts years ago when she was pledged to the Dauphin. And Mary herself, now nine years old, sent Charles a message with a gift, an emerald, by which the symbolists of the period represented chastity; traditionally, such stones burst asunder in the presence of illicit love.
Her mother dictated the letter, perhaps; quite certainly her mother was for ever talking to her daughter of Spain. Katherine had never forgotten her country. Gentlemen who wished to please her spoke to her in Spanish, the arms of Spain were embroidered with those of England on her cloth of estate, and she kept her pride as Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.
It must have seemed to her the fate of all others to be prayed for, that her child should sit on the throne her own mother had made glorious.
She must have prayed for her nephew's victory in the war which was declared as a result of the provisions of the Treaty of Windsor becoming known. Such petitions are dangerous; they may be granted. Francis lost at Pavia; he went to Madrid a prisoner, stripped of power, and the one reason for the Emperor's condescension to a princess none too well portioned ceased to exist. With Francis out of the way, Henry became unimportant, and the Emperor set about getting out of his bargain.
He was peremptory. Mary was to be sent to Spain at once. Her dowry was to be increased to , ducats, with a further , crowns towards the expense of the war with France, in which he had engaged on Henry's behalf. As to the 30, already owing, nothing was said about that. Wolsey was firm. The Princess would only be exchanged for a hostage of equal rank; she was too young and too precious to be taken otherwise out of the kingdom.
The ambassadors bowed, and after saluting the King and Queen, made a brief address in Latin to the Princess, who replied with fluency in the same tongue. But they too, in spite of politeness, were firm. They were instructed to take possession of the Princess and the money at once, or else the King must release the Emperor from his promise. Henry gave an angry answer, refused to consider an increase of dowry; as for the Spanish upbringing, if the Emperor 'should seek a mistress for her, to frame her after the manner of Spain, and of whom she might take example of virtue, he should not find in all Christendom a more meet than she now hath, that is the Queen's grace, her mother, who is comen of the house of Spain, and who for the affection she beareth the Emperor will nourish and bring her up as may be hereafter to his most contentation.
It was time he should marry; his subjects expected it, and favoured the Portuguese princess, not only for her dowry, but because she was more of an age to have children; Isabella was at this time twenty-three years old. Henry, seeing his mind made up, was unwilling to quarrel. He agreed to call the bargain off; on condition that Charles should make peace with France and pay his debts to England.
The Emperor agreed, and in a few days his marriage contract with Isabella was signed. As for the 30, crowns, they were conveniently forgotten; certainly they never returned to the English treasury, though perhaps Wolsey's pockets knew something of their whereabouts.
The Emperor at his second visit had increased the Cardinal's pension--already, from this source, to something more like crowns a year. Mary Tudor, at this breakdown of both her marriage chances, was nine years old.
It was not to be supposed that her discreet governess, her silent mother, did not now and then tell her stories of what her life as Empress would be. She had seen Charles; the little Dauphin, never, though they had exchanged toys. The normal small girl falls in love very easily, wreathing her imagination round such objects as chance may present. A young man of twenty, with a great name, ruler of half a dozen sounding countries; a simple and dignified young man, who went on his knee for her mother's blessing; such a husband, together with the thought of seeing Spain, must have made a curious and attractive picture in her mind, of orange trees, and deep rivers, with herself sitting on a throne surrounded by gentlemen wearing their hats.
Mary was half a Spaniard, and the country of a mother's exile takes on colours not altogether earthly.
But she was now proclaimed Princess of Wales, heiress, that is, to the Crown; and sent off to make the acquaintance of her principality 'accompanied with an honourable, sad, discreet, and expert counsel. It is notable, however, that she became 'very perfect in Spanish. By this time, despite an ugly display of double-dealing on both sides, Francis and Henry were friends again, and the next move came from the King of France, once more suggesting marriage; not this time on his son's behalf, but on his own.
He was told that Mary, 'the pearl of the world,' would be handed over as the price of alliance and in return for the town of Boulogne. Alliances were cheap, they could be made and unmade with the help of a scrap of paper and a seal; towns, once ceded, were not so easily regained. The King hesitated, and his mother, Louise of Savoy, took it upon herself to move the hard hearts of the English envoys. Her son, she said, had for many years been eager to marry Princess Mary, both for her manifold virtues and other gay qualities.
Ambassadors after this drove like shuttles across and across the Channel, with requests for pictures, civil letters, the pictures themselves, and the usual reports of spies; most of which latter insisted that the King of England had no intention of marrying his child to any foreigner; that the people would not bear it; and that if he did there would be general war.
The Princess Mary, however, was put through her paces for the envoys as before, showing her writing, her skill at music and Latin; which being satisfactory there was another magnificent betrothal, with a sermon from yet another bishop, a Frenchman this time, on the beauties and duties of matrimony; and afterwards dancing in the Queen's apartment at Greenwich.
One of the French envoys, de Turenne, who danced with Mary, running an expert eye over her frailness--she was a slender, shortish girl--gave his master his opinion, that she would not be fit for marriage for another three years. She looked, however, very well, particularly in the masque or play that followed. The scene opened with the view of a cave, guarded by gentlemen of the court in cloth of gold doublets and tall plumes, carrying torches. Eight girls were grouped within the cave, their dress as splendid as that of the torchbearers; cloth of gold, hair gathered in nets, with richly jewelled garlands over velvet caps, and the sleeves of their surcoats so long that they almost touched the ground.
The Princess was distinguished by the astonishing display of jewels that she wore; carrying, said the Venetian ambassador, all the gems of the eighth sphere. The dancing noblemen were masked and wore black velvet slippers, the King, having recently been hurt at tennis, being obliged to ease his foot in this way.
The Princess at last took off her cap, and over her shoulders fell her hair, which was a silver colour, very thick and curly. The festivities went on till morning. It was one of the most splendid days of Mary's life. Wolsey in person was the next to meet the French King, now alarmed by the Emperor's success in Rome, and something more than anxious for an ally of good standing. Wolsey wrote after his interview that Francis was in a good disposition concerning the Princess, 'and I, being her godfather, loving her entirely, next unto your Highness, and above all other creatures, assured him I was desirous she should be bestowed upon his person, as in the best and most worthy place in Christendom.
It is expedient and necessary for me and this Kingdom that I should marry her; and I assure you that for this reason I have as great a mind to her as ever I had to any woman. He wanted, too, to see just what would happen to the couple of armies Francis had sent into Italy. Both were beaten, and the terms on which the Emperor insisted in the ensuing treaty of peace left no room for negotiations with England; left, in fact, nothing for Francis to do but keep some of his old promises.
He had made proposals to the Emperor's sister, he was now to marry her.
The Dauphin, still betrothed to Mary, was to take a Portuguese princess instead, and leave Mary to the Duke of Orleans, his brother. A contract was accordingly drawn up and signed by Francis in August Mary's list of suitors was not yet complete; but there can have been very few women, few princesses even, who have been in their time betrothed to a father and two of his sons; or who, pledged to one man at the age of nine, come to marry his son thirty years later.
It is ironic to find Henry VIII on the verge of his great quarrel, clamouring to all Christendom that it was not lawful for a man to marry his brother's wife, here preparing for his daughter the fate of her own mother, the rejected Queen; and to see how this very quarrel brought the contract to nothing. The divorce transformed the Princess of Wales to a bastard without any claim upon the throne of England, and so annulled her value as a factor in bargains. This aspect of the matter claims attention.
A citizen of London kept a careful list of the Lord Mayors of his period with the chief doings during each year of their office. His records begin with Sir William Remington, under whose name for sole entry stand the words: 'Then came my Lady Katherine, the King's daughter of Castille, in to England. Under this is the entry: 'Then was Prince Arthur, the son of K.
She was loved, 'as though she had been of the blood royal of England,' says one ambassador. But the King in putting her away, had law, though not public opinion, on his side. Erasmus, his friend, wrote in perplexity: 'No mortal ever heard me speak against the divorce or for it. I should have been mad to volunteer an opinion when learned doctors and prelates could not agree. I love the King, who has always been good to me. I love the Queen too, as all good men do, and the King, I think, still does.
How could I thrust myself unasked into a dispute so invidious? When the Queen had five still-born children in eight years there were many who attributed this series of disasters to heavenly impatience with incest. It was then, as it is now, a crime in civil law to marry a dead husband's brother.
It was then, as now it is not, a thing quite out of the contemplation of statesmen that a woman should reign alone. Married, she would be ruled by her husband; unmarried, she would be, as Elizabeth later became, a prey for all the princes of Europe to come hawking at.
Katherine could now have no son; a son was needed to save the kingdom from civil war at Henry's death. His passion for another woman was only a lesser aspect of the main question, and he had at first, as Erasmus perceived, who knew them both, no unkindness for the Queen. It was hinted that retreat to a nunnery by Katherine would meet the required conditions; she was assured by Henry in person that he could not marry while she lived.
But Katherine was a daughter of Spain, a great princess on whose bed-hangings the arms of Spain, with those of England, were embroidered.
A bill of dispensation had been granted by the Pope, and she demanded that the matter should be referred to his successor. She had to he content with appearing before his legate. When she had pleaded, and withdrawn, Henry spoke to the court: 'She is, my lords, as true, as obedient, as conformable a wife as I could in my phantasy wish or desire. A woman of most gentleness, most humility and buxomness, and of all qualities pertaining to nobility.
The trial dragged on, with rulings, overrulings, canvassing of foreign and English universities for opinions, a memorial to the Pope. Katherine remained silent, except for a repeated refusal to be tried in England.
She was ordered to leave the court, to give up communication with her daughter, and obeyed both sentences. Months passed. At the New Year Katherine ventured to send her husband a gold cup; she was ordered to write no more to the King's grace, and the cup was returned. Six months before, though the business of the divorce was in full bustle, Henry still treated Katherine as his queen; 'although,' an observer says, 'he sore lamented his chance, and made no mirth as he was wont to do,' 'he dined and resorted to the Queen as he was accustomed, and minished nothing her estate, and much loved and cherished their daughter, the Lady Mary.
The contract with Orleans still held, but now, with the divorce in debate, it was Francis who objected, being uncertain of her status and afraid, as he said, lest the world should say he had married his son to a bastard. At this other suitors, some of them improbable, and who would not have pretended to a legitimate daughter and heiress of England, timidly put in their claim: King John of Poland, the Duke of Cleves, the paralysed Duke of Milan.
With all these Henry dealt in his bluffest manner. He might ill-treat Mary at home, but foreigners should respect any daughter of his; who dared to call her illegitimate did so at the risk of his head. There had been a rumour at the court of the Emperor, grown probably out of Anne's known spite, that she was to be married off to some base-born person.Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare.
The maid, as I said, came of very honest parents, had a good fortune, was very handsome; in a word, was a match for a prince.
Women's Roles (Family, Society)
It's more like her saying, "Hurry up and get in here, and let's do this before our child wakes up. I will be fixing MANY of the problems it has, including elaborating on certain things, fixing grammar, and building up more romance and mystery within the story. A World Apart. All these topics are like buildings which constructed by moral rules. Others invoke John Stuart Mill's doctrine that the only purpose for laws governing any member of society is to prevent harm to others, chiefly physical harm.
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