Campbell and Randolph H. Wynne, The Guilford Press, ; pages. Article (PDF Available) in Remote Sensing 5(1) · January. Campbell, Randolph H. Wynne [PDF EBOOK EPUB site]. Get Instant Access to Introduction To Remote Sensing, Fifth Edition By James B. Remote sensing is a field designed to enable people to look beyond the Introduction to Remote Sensing, by James B. Campbell, provides a.

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Introduction to remote sensing. [James B Campbell; Randolph H Wynne] -- A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces . Introduction to Remote Sensing, Fifth Edition - site edition by James B. Campbell, Randolph H. Wynne. Download it once and read it on your site device. Introduction to Remote Sensing. Fifth Edition. Edited by. James B. Campbell and Randolph H. Wynne, The Guilford. Press, ; pages.

Object-oriented classification FIGURE List of Figures xxvii Bias and precision Incorrectly classified border pixels at the edges of parcels Error patterns Non-site-specific accuracy Site-specific accuracy Accuracy assessment sample size Contrived example illustrating computation of chance agreement FIGURE Hyperion image, Mt.

Stereo aerial photographs of the Galisteo Creek region Annotated version of image shown in Figure Hypothetical situation in which a fault with little or no surface expression forms a preferred zone of movement FIGURE Brightnesses of surfaces depend on the orientation of the surface in relation to the direction of illumination FIGURE Chromaticity plot of data tabulated in Table Black-and-white panchromatic photograph of the same area shown in Figure Black-and-white infrared photograph of the same area depicted in Figure Eastern shore of Virginia: overview showing areas imaged in Figures Thermal infrared image of Eastern shore of Virginia, 23 July , approximately p.

Sample images illustrating tree canopy and imperviousness data used for NLCD xxx List of Figures FIGURE PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7.

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PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE Introduction A picture is worth a thousand words. Is this true, and if so, why? Pictures concisely convey information about positions, sizes, and interrelationships between objects. By their nature, they portray information about things that we can recognize as objects.

These objects in turn can convey deep levels of meaning. Because humans possess a high level of proficiency in deriving information from such images, we experience little difficulty in interpreting even those scenes that are visually complex. We are so competent in such tasks that it is only when we attempt to replicate these capabilities using computer programs, for instance, that we realize how powerful our abilities are to derive this kind of intricate information.

Each picture, therefore, can truthfully be said to distill the meaning of at least a thousand words.


This book is devoted to the analysis of a special class of pictures that employ an overhead perspective e. They are especially powerful because they permit us to monitor changes over time; to measure sizes, areas, depths, and heights; and, in general, to acquire information that is very difficult to acquire by other means. However, our ability to extract this kind of information is not innate; we must work hard to develop the knowledge and skills that allow us to use images Figure 1.

Our purpose in Chapter 1 is to briefly outline its content, origins, and scope as a foundation for the more specific chapters that follow.

Two examples of visual interpretation of images. Humans have an innate ability to derive meaning from the complex patterns of light and dark that form this image—we can interpret patterns of light and dark as people and objects.

At another, higher, level of understanding, we learn to derive meaning beyond mere recognition of objects, to interpret the arrangement of figures, to notice subtle differences in posture, and to assign meaning not present in the arbitrary pattern of light and dark. Thus this picture tells a story. It conveys a meaning that can be received only by observers who can understand the significance of the figures, the statue, and their relationship.

Definitions The field of remote sensing has been defined many times Table 1. From a cursory look at these definitions, it is easy to identify a central concept: the gathering of information at a distance. This excessively broad definition, however, must be refined if it is to guide us in studying a body of knowledge that can be approached in a single course of study.

So it is also with this second image, a satellite image of southwestern Virginia. With only modest effort and experience, we can interpret these patterns of light and dark to recognize topography, drainage, rivers, and vegetation.

There is a deeper meaning here as well, as the pattern of white tones tells a story about the interrelated human and natural patterns within this landscape—a story that can be understood by those prepared with the necessary knowledge and perspective.

Because this image employs an unfamiliar perspective and is derived from radiation outside the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, our everyday experience and intuition are not adequate to interpret the meaning of the patterns recorded here, so it is necessary to consciously learn and apply acquired knowledge to understand the meaning of this pattern.

For our purposes, the definition can be based on modification of concepts given in Table 1. Remote Sensing: Some Definitions Remote sensing has been variously defined but basically it is the art or science of telling something about an object without touching it. Fischer et al.

Lintz and Simonett, , p. American Society of Photogrammetry Remote sensing is the observation of a target by a device separated from it by some distance. Barrett and Curtis, , p. Remote sensing then in the widest sense is concerned with detecting and recording electromagnetic radiation from the target areas in the field of view of the sensor instrument.

This radiation may have originated directly from separate components of the target area; it may be solar energy reflected from them; or it may be reflections of energy transmitted to the target area from the sensor itself.

White, , pp. Broadly defined. National Academy of Sciences, , p. The quantity most frequently measured in present-day remote sensing systems is the electromagnetic energy emanating from objects of interest, and although there are other possibilities e.

Landgrebe, quoted in Swain and Davis, , p. This definition serves as a concise expression of the scope of this volume. It is not, however, universally applicable, and is not intended to be so, because practical constraints limit the scope of this volume.

So, although this text must omit many interesting topics e. History and Scope of Remote Sensing 7 1. Milestones in the History of Remote Sensing The scope of the field of remote sensing can be elaborated by examining its history to trace the development of some of its central concepts. A few key events can be offered to trace the evolution of the field Table 1.

More complete accounts are given by Stone , Fischer , Simonett , and others. The first attempts to form images by photography date from the early s, when a number of scientists, now largely forgotten, conducted experiments with photosensitive chemicals. In Louis Daguerre — publicly reported results of his experiments with photographic chemicals; this date forms a convenient, although arbitrary, milestone for the birth of photography.

In , he acquired an aerial photo from a tethered balloon in France. In succeeding years numerous improvements were made in photographic technology and in methods of acquiring photographs of the Earth from balloons and kites. Milestones in the History of Remote Sensing — — — — — — — — — — s s Discovery of infrared by Sir William Herschel Beginning of practice of photography Infrared spectrum shown by A.

Fizeau and J. Early Uses of the Airplane for Photography The use of powered aircraft as platforms for aerial photography forms the next milestone.

In Wilbur Wright piloted the plane that acquired motion pictures of the Italian landscape near Centocelli; these are said to be the first aerial photographs taken from an airplane.

The maneuverability of the airplane provided the capability of controlling speed, altitude, and direction required for systematic use of the airborne camera. Although there were many attempts to combine the camera with the airplane, the instruments of this era were clearly not tailored for use with each other Figure 1.

World War I World War I — marked the beginning of the acquisition of aerial photography on a routine basis. Although cameras used for aerial photography during this conflict were designed specifically for use with the airplane, the match between the two instruments was still rather rudimentary by the standards of later decades Figure 1. The value of aerial photography for military reconnaissance and surveillance became increasingly clear as the war continued, and its applications became increasingly sophisticated.

Early aerial photography by the U. Navy, This photograph illustrates difficulties encountered in early efforts to match the camera with the airplane—neither is well-suited for use with the other. From U. Aerial photography, World War I.

By the time of World War I, attempts to match the camera and the airplane had progressed only to a modest extent, as illustrated by this example. The aircraft with the biplane design typical of this era has a port for oblique photography to allow the photographer to aim the camera through the port from within the fuselage to avoid the disadvantages of leaning over the edge of the cockpit.

The photographer wears a chest-mounted microphone for communication with the pilot and is shown holding a supply of extra plates for the camera. Interwar Years: — Numerous improvements followed from these beginnings. Camera designs were improved and tailored specifically for use in aircraft. The science of photogrammetry—the practice of making accurate measurements from photographs—was applied to aerial photography, with the development of instruments specifically designed for analysis of aerial photos.

Although the fundamentals of photogrammetry had been defined much earlier, the field developed toward its modern form in the s, with the application of specialized photogrammetric instruments. From these origins, another landmark was established: the more or less routine application of aerial photography in government programs, initially for topographic mapping but later for soil survey, geologic mapping, forest surveys, and agricultural statistics.

Many of the innovations during this era were led by visionary pioneers who established successful niches in private industry to develop civil applications of aerial mapping. Sherman Fairchild — founded numerous companies, including Fairchild Surveys and Fairchild Camera and Instruments, that became leaders in aviation and in aerial camera design.

Talbert Abrams — led many innovations in aerial survey, in aviation, in camera design, in training, and in worldwide commercial operations. During this period, the well-illustrated volume by Lee , The Face of the Earth as Seen from the Air, surveyed the range of possible applications of aerial photography in a variety of 10 I.

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Although the applications that Lee envisioned were achieved at a slow pace, the expression of governmental interest ensured continuity in the scientific development of the acquisition and analysis of aerial photography, increased the number of photographs available, and trained many people in uses of aerial photography.

Nonetheless, the acceptance of the use of aerial photography in most governmental and scientific activities developed slowly because of resistance among traditionalists, imperfections in equipment and technique, and genuine uncertainties regarding the proper role of aerial photography in scientific inquiry and practical applications.

The worldwide economic depression of — was not only an economic and financial crisis but also for many nations an environmental crisis. National concerns about social and economic impacts of rural economic development, widespread soil erosion, reliability of water supplies, and similar issues led to some of the first governmental applications of aerial surveys to record and monitor rural economic development.

Introduction to Remote Sensing

In the United States, the U. Department of Agriculture and the Tennessee Valley Authority led efforts to apply aerial photography to guide environmental planning and economic development. Such efforts formed an important contribution to the institutionalization of the use of aerial photography in government and to the creation of a body of practical experience in applications of aerial photography Figure 1. Progress in applications of aerial photography, — During the inter- val between World War I and World War II — integration of the camera and the airplane progressed, as did institutionalization of aerial photography in government and industry.

By June , the date of this photograph, progress on both fronts was obvious. Here an employee of the U. Geological Survey uses a specialized instrument, the Oblique Sketchmaster, to match detail on an aerial photograph to an accurate map. By the time of this photograph, aerial photography formed an integral component of the U. Geological Survey operations. In: Foody, G. Environmental remote sensing from regional to global scales. Wiley, Chichester.

Google Scholar de Villiers, J. Backpropagation neural nets with one and two hidden layers. Neural Networks 4: Google Scholar Drake, N. Linear mixture modelling of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for mapping the distribution and abund-ance of gypsum in the Tunisian Southern Atlas. Spatial data Remote Sensing Society, Nottingham. Google Scholar Dymond, J.

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Science Google Scholar Holben, B. Linear mixing mod-els applied to coarse spatial resolution data from multispectral satellite senors. Remote Sensing, Google Scholar Hlavka, C. Google Scholar Kaufman, Y. Tucker, C. Remote sensing of biomass burning in the tropics. Google Scholar Kerdiles, H. Google Scholar Malingreau, J. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation. Google Scholar Mayaux, P. Estimation of tropical forest area from coarse spatial resolution data: a two step correction func-tion for proportional errors due to spatial aggregation.

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Google Scholar Roller, N. Coarse-resolution satellite data for ecological surveys. BioScience Google Scholar Rumelhart, D. Learning internal representation by error propagation. In Rumelhart, D. Workshop summary statement: terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes-quantification of sinks and sources of CO2. Water, Air Soil Pollut.

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Google Scholar Sedjo, R. The carbon cycle and global forest ecosystems.Play media This video is about how Landsat was used to identify areas of conservation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo , and how it was used to help map an area called MLW in the north. But studies have shown that only a fraction of them know more about the data they are working with. Intangible ;. Schematic representation of an airborne laser profiler Schematic diagram of a lidar scanner Examples of lidar flight lines Section of a lidar image enlarged to depict detail Section of a lidar image enlarged to depict detail Acquisition of lidar data Schematic diagram of primary and secondary lidar returns Primary and secondary lidar returns from two forested regions Bare-earth lidar surface with its first reflective surface shown above it Old Yankee Stadium, New York City, as represented by lidar data FIGURE 9.

Data processing levels[ edit ] To facilitate the discussion of data processing in practice, several processing "levels" were first defined in by NASA as part of its Earth Observing System [17] and steadily adopted since then, both internally at NASA e. Comprehensive and up to date, this is an essential text for our dynamic discipline. Object-Based Image Analysis OBIA is a sub-discipline of GIScience devoted to partitioning remote sensing RS imagery into meaningful image-objects, and assessing their characteristics through spatial, spectral and temporal scale.

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