In this article, the definition of the native speaker is explored based on the works of various scholars .. Liu, J. (). STUDENT'S PERCEPTIONS OF NATIVE SPEAKER AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKER TEACHERS: IMPLICATION FOR TEACHER EDUCATION * Rahmila. PDF | In this more mobile and globalized world, the concept of what it means to be a native speaker of a language is becoming ever more.

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PDF | Given the unprecedented spread of English, native English speakers ( NESs) have been estimated to number million by PDF | On Jan 1, , Ribut Wahyudi and others published Native Native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs) versus Non Native English. The native speaker is a contentious linguistic concept, and since there has yet to be explore native and non-native English speaker (NNES) identity constructs.

To systematically compare lexical diversities cross-linguistically we use parallel translations of the same texts into hundreds of languages. Parallel translations provide a natural means of controlling for constant information content.

The LDT of these texts can be quantified by applying three measures: the parameters of the Zipf-Mandelbrot law [ 19 , 20 ], Shannon entropy [ 21 , 22 ] and type-token ratios [ 23 — 26 ].

Using these measures, we observe a great variety of lexical diversities across language families and regions of the world despite constant content of the texts. To test whether some of this variation can be attributed to language contact, we employ three types of statistical model: a simple linear regression, regressing lexical diversities on L2 speaker proportions; b linear mixed-effects regression controlling for family relationships, regional clustering and text type; and c phylogenetic generalized least squares regression PGLS that models the potential co-evolution of L2 speaker proportions with lexical diversities.

The results of these models converge to show that the ratio of non-native speakers predicts lexical diversity beyond language families, regional clustering and text types. These results can be interpreted as an example of a co-evolution between sociolinguistic niches more or less non-native influence and language structure lower or higher lexical diversity [ 12 , 27 ]. From this perspective languages are complex adaptive systems shaped by the communicative needs and learning constraints of speaker populations [ 28 — 33 ].

We conclude that lexical diversity is a quantitative linguistic measure which is highly relevant to the enquiry of language evolution, language typology and language change, and that it can be modeled taking into account sociolinguistic and genealogical information. This supports the claim that the evolution of language structure can only be understood as a co-evolution of population structure, human cognitive constraints and communicative encoding strategies.

The UDHR currently comprises a collection of more than parallel translations. However, only of these are fully converted into unicode. The UDHR is a short legal text of 30 articles and ca.

The PBC is a collection of parallel translations of the Bible. It currently comprises texts that have been assigned unique ISO codes i. Texts are aligned by verses, which allows us to fully parallelize them by including only the verses that occur in all the texts of the respective language sample we are looking at.

Non-native teachers not having a very good command of English, especially in oral proficiency, mostly possess low self-image and this influence the way they teach. The lack of competence possessed by non-native teachers might be true.

1. Think in English

In the case of ELT in Indonesia, students may find that their English teachers are far from satisfactory.

In terms of educational background, not all English teachers have appropriate qualification or have a chance to pursue English teacher training. The teaching methodology is still traditional and the resources are limited. As a result, learners do not get make much improvement Nur, Learners in general hold a belief that non-native teachers are less competent, and they prefer to be taught by native speakers because they can get the perfect model.

According to Brown, non-native teachers may not always be able to achieve native-like oral proficiency, but they might have excellent skills in listening, reading or writing.

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More convincingly, Medgyes states that language competence is actually only one variable in teaching skills. There are other variables like personality, behavior, experience, aptitude, charisma, sex, age, motivation, training, and so on, which need to be taken into account. If native and non-native teacher are compared within these aspects, it is very likely that both are equally competent in teaching practice.

For example, a non-native teacher may be very charismatic according to the students because of his or her ability in telling stories, making jokes, playing games, etc, or ability to build good relationship with the students.

Furthermore, Medgyes , proposed the six assets of non-native teachers. Those assets are: 1. Non-native teachers are models of successful learners.

The native speaker in applied linguistics

Non-native speakers of English would not be able to become English teachers if they had not learned English successfully. All the process and success can motivate the learners to make the same achievement or even better.

Non-native teachers can teach learning strategies more effectively. They have experiences and know how to learn the language through a conscious process, unlike the natives who just acquire it. Therefore, they can apply and share their strategies to the students.

Non-native teachers can provide learners with more information about English language. It is because non-native teachers have learned English from scratch and during the process they understand how English works. Non-native teachers have bilingual or even multilingual competence, and according to Canagarajah , p. Through their own learning experience, non-native teachers know what is difficult and easy, so they can anticipate when their students encounter certain problem.

Medgyes , p. The difficulties they previously encountered as learners might be similar to those of their students. This similar experience makes non-native teachers more sensitive and understanding, and they can share their tips and strategies to the learners.

Non-native teachers can benefit from using the same mother tongue as the students. In the past, there was a notion that a successful lesson must be conducted entirely in English.


However, now many experts agree that the use of L1 can make the teaching and learning process more successful. Learners are given opportunity to switch to L1 when they have difficulties in finding the correct expression in English. So, they will be less fearful of making mistakes. Besides, L1 can also be used for time efficiency.

The Native Speaker English Teacher and the Politics of Globalization in Japan

Students may feel frustrated being taught by a native teacher because students may not always understand everything in English. But when non-native teachers use their mother tongue to explain difficult language items such as grammar patterns or certain expressions, the lesson is easier to grasp.

Having the same first language can also mean having the same background in culture, habits, or perspectives.

Native teachers might not be all familiar with these or they have different perspectives. For some EFL learners, cultural identity might be an important issue.

Methodology This research applied quantitative approach with a survey design. A set of questionnaire was used as an instrument for this research to identify and measure the attitudes of the participants toward the given topic.

The items in the questionnaire were designed and developed by the researcher based on the ideas proposed by Medgyes and Timmis who conducted a research on similar topic but administer to a number of teacher and students. The item statements were given value, 1 for strongly disagree SD , 2 for disagree D , 3 for unsure U , 4 for agree A , and 5 for strongly agree SA , whereas for negative statement item, a reverse scaling was used.

The questionnaire was administered manually paper-based during a class session. Two classes in which the students have ever been taught by a native speaker were chosen as the respondents. After it was gathered, the total of the respondents became 58 students, with the distribution of 44 females and 14 males. Since this research uses survey design which describe trends and general tendencies to a single variable or question, descriptive statistics was used.

Descriptive analysis of the data was done on a variable-by-variable basis, and involved analyzing the means, standard deviation, and frequency distribution. Besides indicating general tendencies of the data, descriptive statistics has helped the researcher to summarize the overall trends in the data.

Findings 4. The majority of students In response to statement item 9, Interestingly, when the students were asked whether native speaker has better teaching method and techniques, Overall, although native speaker is preferred by many students, the next finding reveals that native speakers are not always the best teacher. Many students also feel unsure whether native speaker is more approachable than non-native teachers.

Table 4. No deviation 1 Having a native speaker 2 6 28 22 4.

The native speaker in applied linguistics

This might happen because the students have failed to make themselves understood due to lack of vocabulary, misunderstand meaning of utterances, have different accent, or could not switch into L1 as they normally do it with non-native teachers. However, there are a few students who disapproved with the culture or habit brought by native speaker such as their clothing, their attitude, or they way they talk.

This implies that students still stick strongly to the local culture particularly Islamic culture, and have not yet accustomed to the western culture. No deviation 7 My English would not be as 1 8 23 22 4 3.

It would seem that a comprehensive model of language learning must account for this. This is certainly not meant to sound a death knell for the univariate study investigating the effects of a single variable. Such studies are vital and necessary to build the knowledge base, one piece at a time.

Future studies may approach the GLL with an increased sensitivity to various learner contexts and goals by studying diverse groups of language learners. These studies may then provide the fuel to propel even more comprehensive models. The ability of those models to account for the discrete facts and potentially conflicting conclusions presented by narrowly focused studies will be their ultimate test and contribution.

We have learned much about the GLL. Fortunately, there is much left to learn. Edinburgh A book on the native speaker brings into focus a host of basic theoretical and empirical questions in linguistics which have only been touched upon in the literature so far, and a more elaborate and systematic treatment of the issues involved is long overdue.

The range of issues, however, is so broad that any single study has to confine itself to a limited selection of aspects, which means that reader expectations can be met to a certain extent only. This also holds true of the book under discussion. In any case, it is well worth reading.

It is always highly questions such as: Is semilingualism a reality or a logical Davies raises quite a number of most intriguing a native speaker? Davies attempts to tackle these questions systematically from a linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic perspective, as evidenced by various chapter headings. However, before having finally clarified basic conceptual distinctions-say-between competence, performance and proficiency, Davies introduces additional concepts such as four different kinds of knowledge which only serve to confuse the reader, and at times the author himself seems to get entangled in the web of the many subtle and not so subtle distinctions.

Communicative competence allows the native speaker to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable sentences p. This leaves the reader bewildered because on p. Time and again Davies raises the question of whether a non-native speaker or adult language learner can become a native speaker, and the often repeated answer is:They also remind us to keep our eyes on social affairs.

Before you go to a place where you have to speak English, you can practice what you might have to say. Braine Ed. Inheritance and affiliation compared with other terms There are a great many terms other than mother tongue and native language which are used to describe the ties between speakers and languages. There are other variables like personality, behavior, experience, aptitude, charisma, sex, age, motivation, training, and so on, which need to be taken into account.

Languages and emotions of multilingual speakers Clevedon: Multilingual Matters , pp.

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